Steven Patrick Morrissey (born 22 May 1959), known primarily as Morrissey, is an English singer and songwriter. He rose to prominence in the 1980s as the lyricist and vocalist of the alternative rock band The Smiths. After the band's breakup in 1987, Morrissey began a solo career, making the top ten of the UK Singles Chart in the United Kingdom on ten occasions. Widely regarded as an important innovator in indie music independent music , Morrissey has been described by music magazine NME as "one of the most influential artists ever," and The Independent has stated that "most pop stars have to be dead before they reach the iconic status that he has reached in his lifetime." Pitchfork Media has called him "one of the most singular figures in Western po***r culture from the last 20 years."
Morrissey's lyrics have been described as "dramatic...bleak, funny vignettes about doomed relationships, lonely nightclubs, the burden of the past and the prison of the home." He is also noted for his unique vocal style. His forthright, often contrarian opinions have led to a number of media controversies, and he has also attracted media attention for his advocacy of veganism and animal rights.
Early Life, 1959-1976
Steven Patrick Morrissey was born at Park Hospital (now known as Trafford General Hospital) in Davyhulme, Lancashire on 22 May 1959 to Irish Catholic immigrants. His father, Peter Morrissey, was a hospital porter and his mother, Elizabeth Dwyer was a librarian. His parents had emigrated to England just before Morrissey's birth and, along with his only sibling (elder sister Jackie), Morrissey was raised in Harper Street in Hulme, Manchester. In 1965, the family moved to Queens Square in Hulme near Moss Side. The family moved to 384 Kings Road in the suburb of Stretford in 1969, when many of the old terraced streets were being demolished.
As a child, Morrissey developed a number of interests and role models that marked him out among his peers, including '60s girl groups, and female singers such as Dusty Springfield, Sandie Shaw, Marianne Faithfull and Timi Yuro. He was also interested in the "kitchen sink Kitchen sink realism "-style social realism of late 1950s and early 1960s television plays, Coronation Street's Coronation Street Elsie Tanner, actor James Dean, as well as authors Oscar Wilde and Shelagh Delaney. The Moors Murders — which involved a young working-class couple, Ian Brady Moors murders#Ian Brady and Myra Hindley Moors murders#Myra Hindley , who had abducted, raped and killed three children and two teenagers from the Manchester area between July 1963 and October 1965 — devastated and scandalized the city when the matter came to trial in April-May 1966, and this collective trauma made a profound and lasting impression on Morrissey growing up.
In adolescence, Morrissey's athletic ability saved him to a large degree from bullying. Nevertheless, he has described this period as a time when he was often lonely and depressed. As a teenager, he began taking prescription drugs to help combat the depression that would later follow him throughout his life. He attended St Mary's Secondary Modern School and Stretford Technical School Secondary Technical School , where he passed three O levels General Certificate of Education , including English Literature. He then worked briefly for the Inland Revenue, but ultimately decided to "go on the dole Jobseeker's Allowance ".
Of his youth, Morrissey said, "Pop music was all I ever had, and it was completely entwined with the image of the pop star. I remember feeling that the person singing was actually with me and understood me and my predicament." As of 1974, he regularly wrote letters to music magazines such as Melody Maker and the NME, giving his forthright opinions on various bands. Morrissey would sometimes venture out to see bands at local Manchester venues; the first such occasion being T.Rex T.Rex (band) at Belle Vue Belle Vue, Manchester in 1972. He was taken there by his father, fearing for his safety in the notoriously rough district. Morrissey has described the occasion as "messianic and complete chaos".
Early bands and published books, 1977-1981
Throughout the 1970s, a teenage Morrissey acted as president of the UK branch of the New York Dolls fan club. He articulated his love for the group in the documentary New York Doll: "Some bands grab you and they never let you go and, no matter what they do, they can never let you down... the Dolls were that for me."
This New York Dolls influence made Morrissey an early convert to punk rock. Morrissey, then still with forename, briefly fronted The Nosebleeds in 1978, who by that time included Billy Duffy on guitar (Duffy went on to form the post-punk band The Cult). They played a number of concerts, including one supporting Magazine Magazine (band) , which resulted in a New Musical Express review by Paul Morley. Morrissey also founded The Cramps fan club, the Legion of The Cramped, with another enthusiast for their music, Lindsay Hutton, although he progressively scaled down his involvement in the club over time, due to the increasing amount of time he was devoting to his own musical career.
Morrissey wrote several songs with Duffy, such as "Peppermint Heaven", "I Get Nervous" and "(I Think) I'm Ready for the Electric Chair", but none were recorded during the band's short lifespan, which ended the same year. After the Nosebleeds' split, Morrissey followed Duffy to join Slaughter & The Dogs, briefly replacing original singer Wayne Barrett. He recorded four songs with the band and they auditioned for a record deal in London. After the audition fell through, Slaughter & The Dogs became The Studio Sweethearts without Morrissey.
The singer interrupted his music career at around this time, focusing instead on writing on po***r culture. He published two works with Babylon Books: The New York Dolls (1981), about his favourite band; and James Dean Is Not Dead (1983), about actor James Dean's brief career. A third book, Exit Smiling, which was actually written first (in 1980) and which dealt with obscure B movie actors, was initially rejected and remained unpublished until 1998.
The Smiths, 1982-1987
In early 1982, Morrissey met guitarist Johnny Marr and the two men began a songwriting partnership. After recording several demo tapes with future Fall The Fall (band) drummer Simon Wolstencroft, they recruited drummer Mike Joyce Mike Joyce (musician) in the autumn of 1982. As well, they added bass player Dale Hibbert, who also provided the group with demo recording facilities at the studio where he worked as a factotum. However, after two gigs, Marr's friend Andy Rourke replaced Hibbert on bass, because neither Hibbert's bass playing nor his personality fitted in with the group. Signing to independent record label Rough Trade Records, they released their first single, "Hand in Glove", in May 1983. The record was championed by DJ John Peel, as were all of their later singles, but failed to chart. The follow-up singles "This Charming Man" and "What Difference Does It Make?" fared better when they reached numbers 25 and 12 respectively on the UK Singles Chart. Aided by praise from the music press and a series of studio sessions for Peel and David Jensen at BBC Radio 1, The Smiths began to acquire a dedicated fan base. In February 1984, the group released their debut album The Smiths The Smiths (album) , which reached number two on the UK Albums Chart. Meanwhile, Rourke was fired from the band in early 1986 due to his use of heroin. Rourke was temporarily replaced on bass by Craig Gannon, but he was reinstated after only a fortnight. Gannon stayed in the band, switching to rhythm guitar. This five-piece recorded the singles "Panic Panic (song) " and "Ask Ask (song) " (with Kirsty MacColl on backing vocals) which reached numbers 11 and 14 respectively on the UK Singles Chart, although it was more successful there than the band's previous albums.
Solo career, 1988-1997
In March 1988, a mere six months after The Smiths' final album, Morrissey's released his first solo album, Viva Hate. To create the album, Morrissey teamed up with former Smiths producer Stephen Street, Vini Reilly of Durutti Column (and formerly of The Nosebleeds), and drummer Andrew Paresi. Viva Hate reached number one upon release, supported by the singles "Suedehead" and "Everyday Is Like Sunday." Viva Hate was certified Gold by the RIAA on 16 November 1993.
Morrissey initially planned to release a follow-up album entitled Bona Drag after releasing a few holdover singles from the Viva Hate sessions. As such, he released "The Last of the Famous International Playboys", "Interesting Drug", and "Ouija Board, Ouija Board" over the course of 1989. The first two of these became top ten hits. That year, he also released a single "Interlude Interlude (Morrissey and Siouxsie song) " in duet with Siouxsie Sioux of Siouxsie and the Banshees. Following the success of Vauxhall and I Morrissey began work on Southpaw Grammar in early 1995. When released in August, the album was a hit, reaching number four in the UK. Morrissey claimed that he was "...under the scorching spotlight in the dock, being drilled..." with questions such as " 'How dare you be successful?' 'How dare you move on?'". He stated that "The Smiths were a beautiful thing and Johnny [Marr] left it, and Mike [Joyce] has destroyed it." Morrissey appealed against the verdict, but was not successful.
Morrissey returned on a new record label in 1997 with the single "Alma Matters" in promotion of his album Maladjusted. Though the album was hailed as a return to form for Morrissey the album only reached number eight and its further two singles, "Roy's Keen" and "Satan Rejected My Soul" peaked outside the UK Top 30. You Are the Quarry was released in 2004. The album peaked at number two on the UK album chart and number 11 on the U.S. Billboard album chart. Recorded in Rome, it was released in 2006. The album yielded four hit singles: "You Have Killed Me", "The Youngest Was the Most Loved", "In the Future When All's Well", and "I Just Want to See the Boy Happy". Originally Morrissey was to record the album with producer Jeff Saltzman, however he could not undertake the project. Producer Tony Visconti, of T.Rex T.Rex (band) and David Bowie fame, took over the production role and Morrissey announced that the album was "the most beautiful—perhaps the most gentle, so far." Billboard magazine described the album as showcasing "a thicker, more rock-driven sound" ;; Morrissey attributes this change in sound to new guitarist Jesse Tobias. The subsequent 2006 international tour included more than two dozen gigs in the UK, including concerts at the London Palladium. Morrissey was scheduled to appear at the 2005 Benicassim festival in Spain but pulled out at the last minute. In January 2007, the BBC confirmed that it was in talks with Morrissey for him to write a song for the 2007 Eurovision Song Contest. If an agreement could be made, Morrissey would be writing the song for someone else, rather than performing it himself, a BBC spokesperson claimed. The following month, the BBC ruled this out, and stated Morrissey would not be part of Britain's Eurovision entry.
In early 2007, Morrissey left Sanctuary Records and embarked on a Greatest Hits tour. The tour ran from 1 February 2007 to 29 July 2008 and spanned 106 concerts over 8 different countries. Morrissey cancelled 11 of these dates, including a planned six consecutive shows at The Roundhouse in London, due to "throat problems". The tour consisted of three legs, the first two encompassing the U.S. and Mexico were supported by Kristeen Young from Feb to October while the remainder featured Girl in a Coma. The final leg was a small scale European tour that saw Morrissey headlining the O2 Wireless Festival in Hyde Park, London on 4 July and culminated in Morrissey playing at the Heatwave Festival in Tel Aviv, Israel on 29 July.
After a show in Houston, Texas, on the first leg of the tour Morrissey rented out the Sunrise Sound Studio to record "That's How People Grow Up". The song was recorded with producer Jerry Finn rather than previous producer Tony Visconti for a future single and inclusion on an upcoming album. In an interview on BBC Radio 5 Live with Visconti, the producer stated that his new project would be Morrissey's next album, though that this would not be forthcoming for at least a year. However, in an interview with the BBC News website in October 2007, Morrissey said that the album was already written and ready for a possible September 2008 release and confirmed that his deal with Sanctuary Records had come to an end. In December he signed a new deal with Decca Records, which included a Greatest Hits Greatest Hits (Morrissey) album and a newly-recorded album to follow in autumn 2008. In a reaction to the NME story, Morrissey pointed out that he would rather not be signed to a label. Upon signing with Decca, Morrissey released "That's How People Grow Up" as the first single off of his new Greatest Hits Greatest Hits (Morrissey album) album. Despite lukewarm reviews, especially in the NME, the lack of airplay on British radio (except on XFM), and even the incredulity of fan sites, "That's How People Grow Up" reached the Top 15, reaching number 14 on the British charts. The album charted fifth in the British album chart on its week of release. , 2006.
On 30 May 2008, true-to-you.net stated that Morrissey's new studio album, Years of Refusal would have 12 tracks and be produced by Jerry Finn. On 5 August 2008 it was reported that, although originally due in September, Years of Refusal had been postponed until 16 February 2009, as a result of Finn's death and the lack of an American label to distribute the album.
On 15 August 2008, Warner Music Entertainment announced the upcoming release of Morrissey: Live at the Hollywood Bowl, a DVD documenting the live performance that took place at the historic Hollywood Bowl in Los Angeles, California, on 8 June 2007 on the first leg of Morrissey's 2007/2008 Greatest Hits tour. Morrissey greeted news of the DVD's release by imploring fans not to buy it. Originally due to be released 6 October 2008, the DVD has subsequently been delayed until 1 March 2009 by Warner Music according to HMV. Further Morrissey-related items to released in 2009 preceding Years of Refusal included a remastered version of 1995's Southpaw Grammar which features three previously unreleased bonus tracks and a remastered version of 1997's Maladjusted. Both items were released on 2 March 2009. As part of the extensive Tour of Refusal, Morrissey followed a lengthy US tour with concerts booked in Ireland, Scotland, England, Russia. He had never before performed in Russia.
In November 2008, Rolling Stone magazine named Morrissey one of "The 100 Greatest Singers of All Time". The list was compiled from ballots cast by a panel of 179 "music experts", such as Bruce Springsteen, Alicia Keys and Bono, who were asked to name their 20 favourite vocalists. Morrissey was ranked 92. In a separate interview, with London radio station Xfm, Morrissey also stated that "chances were slim" that he himself would continue performing past the age of 55.
Morrissey's ninth studio album, Years of Refusal, was released worldwide in February, 2009 by the Universal Music Group. It reached third place in the UK Albums Chart and 11 in the US Billboard 200. The record was widely acclaimed by critics, with comparisons made to Your Arsenal and Vauxhall and I. A review from Pitchfork Media noted that with Years of Refusal, Morrissey "has rediscovered himself, finding new potency in his familiar arsenal. Morrissey's rejuvenation is most obvious in the renewed strength of his vocals" and called it his "most venomous, score-settling album, and in a perverse way that makes it his most engaging." He was discharged from the hospital the following day.Morrissey is routinely referred to as an influential artist, both in his solo career and with the Smiths. The BBC has referred to him as "one of the most influential figures in the history of British pop", and the NME named The Smiths the "most influential artist ever" in a 2002 poll, topping The Beatles. Rolling Stone, naming him one of the greatest singers of all time in a recent poll, noted that his "rejection of convention" in his vocal style and lyrics is the reason "why he redefined the sound of British rock for the past quarter-century".
Simpson also argues that "After Morrissey there could be no more pop stars. His was an impossible act to follow...[his] unrivalled knowledge of the pop canon, his unequaled imagination of what it might mean to be a pop star, and his breathtakingly perverse ambition to turn it into great art, could only exhaust the form forever."
In 2006, he was voted the second greatest living British icon cultural icon in a poll held by the BBC's Culture Show. The All Music Allmusic Guide to Rock asserts that Morrissey's "lyrical preoccupations," particularly themes dealing with English identity, proved extremely influential on subsequent artists. Journalist Phillip Collins also described him as a major influence on modern music and "the best British lyricist in living memory".
Cultural historian Julian Stringer notes that the Smiths and Morrissey were a product of and a reaction against Thatcherism, and that their rise to fame "can be seen as the only sustained response that white, English pop/rock music was able to make against the Conservative Government's Conservative Party (UK) appropriation of white, English national identity; and that being the case, it is not really surprising that the response is utterly riddled with contradiction". Other scholars have responded favorably to Morrissey's work, including academic symposia symposium at various universities including University of Limerick and Manchester Metropolitan University. Gavin Hopps, a research fellow and literary scholar at the University of St. Andrews, wrote a full-length academic study of Morrissey's work, calling him comparable to Oscar Wilde, John Betjeman, and Philip Larkin, and noting similarities between Morrissey and Samuel Beckett. The British Food Journal featured an article in 2008 that applied Morrissey's lyrics to building positive business relationships.
A Los Angeles Times critic wrote that Morrissey "patented the template for modern indie rock" and that many bands playing at the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival "would not be there -- or at least, would not sound the same -- were it not for him." Similarly, the critic Steven Wells called Morrissey "the man who more or less invented indie" and an artist "who more than anybody else personifies" indie culture. Stephen Thomas Erlewine of Allmusic writes that the Smiths and Morrissey "inspired every band of note" in the Britpop era, including Suede Suede (band) , Blur Blur (band) , Oasis Oasis (band) and Pulp Pulp (band) . Other major artists including Jeff Buckley and Radiohead
Music industry feuds
Morrissey has criticised singers such as Madonna Madonna (entertainer) , Elton John, and George Michael, generally claiming that their lyrics are pointless and that they are more interested in being celebrities than in their music. He has also had disagreements with The Cure's Robert Smith Robert Smith (musician) , who stated that "If Morrissey says not to eat meat, then I'll eat meat; that's how much I hate Morrissey". Lol Tolhurst, another founding member of The Cure, has claimed that he likes Morrissey's music; however, he also said that Smith was justified in his ire as their feud began when Morrissey allegedly made "a very uncalled for remark concerning Robert in the English press."Neil Tennant of the Pet Shop Boys co-wrote two songs inspired by Morrissey's public stereotyping as miserable and unlovable ("Getting Away with It" and "Miserablism").
In 1994, Morrissey was criticised by Manic Street Preachers' bassist and lyricist Nicky Wire, in regards to comments that Morrissey had made about immigration and national identity in NME . Other targets of his disapproval have been Band Aid Band Aid (band) , rap, reggae (a criticism he later retracted, stating that he was being facetious and that he grew up partly on the classic singles released by the British reggae label Trojan Trojan Records in the early to mid-1970s
At a Dublin concert in June 2004, Morrissey caused controversy by announcing the death of former US President, Ronald Reagan and stating that he would have preferred it if the then current President, George W. Bush, had died. In October 2004, Morrissey released a statement urging American voters to vote for Democratic Party Democratic Party (United States) candidate John Kerry for President, calling this vote a "logical and sane move" and a way to get rid of President Bush. Morrissey argued that "Bush has single-handedly turned the United States into the most neurotic and terror-obsessed country on the planet."
In February 2006, Morrissey said he had been interviewed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and by British intelligence after having spoken out against the American and British governments. Morrissey said "the FBI and the Special Branch have investigated me and I've been interviewed and taped and so forth. They were trying to determine if I was a threat to the government, it didn't take them long to realise that I am not." During a January 2008 concert Morrissey remarked "God Bless Barack Obama" and ranted against Hillary Clinton after a performance of "The World Is Full of Crashing Bores."
Accusations of racism
Morrissey was accused of racism throughout part of the 1980s and much of the 1990s, in part due to the ambiguous lyrics in songs such as "Bengali in Platforms", "Asian Rut" and "The National Front Disco", the latter containing the lyric "England for the English". These criticisms also stemmed from Johnny Rogan's biography of the singer which claimed that, in his late teens, the singer wrote "I don't hate Pakistanis, but I dislike them immensely". In 2006 Liz Hoggard from The Independent argued that "Morrissey didn't help his case with an uneasy flirtation with gangster imagery: he took up boxing and was accompanied everywhere by a skinhead, named Jake." She claimed that the "man who abhorred violence became strangely fascinated by it."
A trigger for much of the criticism was Morrissey's performance at the first Madness Madness (band) Madstock! reunion concert at Finsbury Park, London, in 1992, in which he appeared on stage draped in the Union Flag, often associated with nationalism and hence, by some, with far right groups in Britain. As a backdrop for this performance, he chose a photograph of two female skinheads. The British music magazine NME responded to this performance with a lengthy examination of Morrissey's attitudes to race, claiming that the singer had "left himself in a position where accusations that he's toying with far-right/fascist imagery, and even of racism itself, can no longer just be laughed off with a knowing quip".
In the early days of The Smiths, Morrissey stated that "all reggae is vile", leading to the first reports of his alleged racism. He later explained that this was a tongue-in-cheek answer to "wind up the right-on 1980s NME" and that he grew up partly on the classic singles released by the British reggae label Trojan Trojan Records in the early to mid-1970s. The Smiths' "Panic Panic (song) ", released in July 1986, fades out with the refrain "hang the DJ, hang the DJ, hang the DJ..." Rogan's biography reports that initial critical response to this content was interpreted as distaste for the increasing influence of rap and R&B over po***r music at the time.
Morrissey has rejected claims he is racist, saying "If I am racist then the Pope is female. Which he isn't," and "If the National Front British National Front were to hate anyone, it would be me. I would be top of the list." He qualified that by saying that far-right rage "is simply their anger at being ignored in what is supposed to be a democratic society." In the 2002 documentary, "The Importance of Being Morrissey", he posits the question, "Why on earth would I be racist? What would I be trying to achieve?" In the film, he also takes issue with those who fail to discern the subtlety of his supposedly racist lyrics, stating that "Not everybody is absolutely stupid."
In 1999, Morrissey commented on the rise of Austrian far-right politician Jörg Haider, stating "This is sad. Sometimes I don't believe we live in an intelligent world." In 2004 he signed the explicitly anti-fascist Unite Against Fascism statement, and in 2008 he made a personal donation of £75,000 to the organisers of the Love Music Hate Racism concert in Victoria Park, London, after the withdrawal of the NME's sponsorship left the event facing a financial shortfall.
In 2007, NME printed an interview with Morrissey in which he was quoted as saying, "Britain's a terribly negative place. And it hammers people down and it pulls you back and it prevents you. Also, with the issue of immigration, it's very difficult because although I don't have anything against people from other countries, the higher the influx into England the more the British identity disappears." In the same article, he called racism "silly" and "beyond reason", and said he would be "pilloried" for his comments.
Morrissey's lawyers are now pressing legal action against NME for defamation, with the magazine declining to print a retraction or apology. Within days of issuing the writ against NME, Morrissey also released a detailed explanation of his side of the story via an online fanzine. The statement included a firmly worded rebuttal against the accusations of racism, a condemnation of racism itself and an exposition on his belief that NME's editor had deliberately staged and scandalised the outcome of the interview in an orchestrated attempt to boost the paper's "dwindling circulation". In 2008, Word magazine was forced to apologise in court for an article by David Quantick that accused Morrissey of being a racist and a hypocrite.
Animal rights activism
Morrissey has been vegetarian since he was 11 years old. He has explained his vegetarianism by saying "If you love animals, obviously it doesn't make sense to hurt them." Morrissey is an advocate for animal rights and a supporter of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). In recognition of his support, PETA honoured him with the Linda McCartney Memorial Award at their 25th Anniversary Gala on 10 September 2005. Morrissey named one of his songs "Meat Is Murder", which shared its name with the album on which it was featured. It was the second studio album (and third overall album) of The Smiths.
In January 2006, Morrissey attracted criticism when he stated that he accepts the motives behind the militant tactics of the Animal Rights Militia, saying "I understand why fur-farmers and so-called laboratory scientists are repaid with violence — it is because they deal in violence themselves and it's the only language they understand."
Morrissey has criticized people who are involved in the promotion of eating meat, specifically Jamie Oliver and Clarissa Dickson Wright — the latter already targeted by some animal rights activists for her stance on fox hunting. In response, Dickson-Wright stated “Morrissey is encouraging people to commit acts of violence and I am constantly aware that something might very well happen to me.” The Conservative MP David Davis David Davis (British politician) criticised these comments, though his party leader David Cameron has claimed to be a Smiths fan. On 27 March 2006, Morrissey released a statement that he would not include any concert dates in Canada on his world tour that year — and that he supported a boycott of all Canadian goods — in protest against the country's annual seal hunt, which he described as a "barbaric and cruel slaughter". The comedian Russell Brand, who is also a vegetarian, regularly stated on his BBC Radio 2 show that Morrissey was his hero and often played his music and read out emails Morrissey had sent him.
Morrissey's ***uality has been a matter of debate, and this has been fuelled by many conflicting statements from the singer, in none of which he has explicitly stated his ***ual orientation. Encyclopaedia Britannica argues that he created a "compellingly conflicted persona (loudly proclaimed celibacy offset by coy hints of closeted homo***uality)" which has "made him a peculiar heartthrob". "Morrissey has always taken great pains to maintain the ‘undecidable' nature of his ***uality." In 1983 he claimed to be "a kind of prophet for the fourth ***", on the grounds that he was "bored with men and ...bored with women." In 1984, he stated that he refused "to recognise the terms hetero-, bi-, and homo-***ual" because "everybody has exactly the same ***ual needs." A 1984 Smiths article in Rolling Stone stated that Morrissey "admits he's***", but Morrissey replied that it was news to him and the article used the term "fourth-gender" in its title.
The speculation was further fuelled by the references to*** subculture and slang in his lyrics. In 2006, Liz Hoggard from The Independent noted that "[o]nly 15 years after homo***uality had been decriminalised, his lyrics flirted with every kind of*** subculture"; for example, she claims that "This Charming Man" "is about age-gap,*** ***".
Throughout much of his career, he maintained in interviews that he was a***ual a***uality and celibate celibacy . Johnny Marr stated in a 1984 interview that "Morrissey doesn't participate in *** at the moment and hasn't done so for a while, he's had a lot of girlfriends in the past and quite a few men friends". In 1986, Morrissey claimed that he was "dramatically, supernaturally, non-***ual." In a 1994 interview, he claimed that "*** is actually never in my life", and as such, he argued that "I have no ***uality." In 1995, he claimed "I'd like to have a *** life, if possible." In a 2006 NME interview, he stated that he was no longer celibate, but he did not give any additional details. A 2006 article in UK paper The Independent stated that the singer "...has even hinted at a late-blooming *** life."
Morrissey frequently tells interviewers who ask him about his ***uality that the question is irrelevant to his music, or he gives an evasive or ambiguous response. While the debate over Morrissey's ***uality has become widespread on fan websites, including attempts to analyse the meaning of his ambiguous song lyrics, their attempts are often stymied, because, as The Times critic Tom Gatti puts it, "Morrissey's music [i.e., his lyrics] offers infinite capacity for interpretation" because "they are too flexible, too rich, too textured.”*Viva Hate (1988)
*Kill Uncle (1991)
*Your Arsenal (1992)
*Vauxhall and I (1994)
*Southpaw Grammar (1995)
*You Are the Quarry (2004)
*Ringleader of the Tormentors (2006)
*Years of Refusal (2009)
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