Michael Jackson Overview
Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American United States of America singer-songwriter, dancer, actor, choreographer, businessman, philanthropist, activist, record producer, and entertainer. Referred to as the King of Pop Honorific nicknames in po***r music , he is recognized as the most successful entertainer of all time and one of the most influential. His contributions to music, dance and fashion, and a much-publicized personal life made him a global figure in po***r culture for over four decades.
Jackson made his debut in 1964 as lead singer and youngest member of The Jackson 5 alongside his brothers. His solo career started in 1971 and he produced ten studio albums. The 1982 album Thriller Thriller (album) remains the best-selling album List of best-selling albums worldwide of all time, having sold more than 110 million copies. Four of his other albums rank among the world's best-sellers. Jackson is credited with having elevated the music video from a mere promotional tool into an art form. His videos for Billie Jean, Beat It and Thriller Thriller (song) made him the first African American artist to amass a strong crossover crossover (music) following on MTV. He po***rized a number of complicated dance techniques, such as the robot robot (dance) and the moonwalk moonwalk (dance) . His distinctive musical style, vocal style, and choreography continue to transcend generational, racial and cultural boundaries.
Jackson has been inducted into twelve music halls of fame Hall of Fame , more than any other act. He is one of the few artists to have been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice. Other achievements Records and achievements of Michael Jackson include several Guinness World Records (including the Most Successful Entertainer of All Time); 15 Grammy Awards (including the Living Legend Award and the Lifetime Achievement Award); 26 American Music Awards (more than any other artist, and including recognition as Artist of the Century); 17 number-one singles in the US List of artists who reached number one in the United States#J (including four as a member of The Jackson 5); and estimated global sales of over 780 million records, making him one of the best-selling recording artists List of best-selling music artists ever. Jackson's personal life and relationships Personal relationships of Michael Jackson generated controversy for years. His changing appearance Michael Jackson's health and appearance was noticed from the late 1970s onwards, as changes to his nose and skin color caused much media speculation. In 1993 he was accused 1993 child ***ual abuse accusations against Michael Jackson of child ***ual abuse, though no formal charges were brought. In 2005 he was tried and acquitted People v. Jackson of similar allegations.
Jackson died Death of Michael Jackson on June 25, 2009 from a drug overdose, amidst preparations for his This Is It This Is It (Michael Jackson concerts) concert series. Before his death, Jackson had reportedly been administered drugs such as propofol and lorazepam. The Los Angeles County Coroner Los Angeles County Coroner's Office reported its conclusion that his death was a homicide. Prosecutors formally charged his personal physician with involuntary manslaughter Manslaughter#Involuntary manslaughter . Jackson's death triggered a global outpouring of grief. It was estimated that as many as a billion people around the world may have watched his public memorial service Michael Jackson memorial service on live broadcast television.
Early life and The Jackson 5 (1958–1975)
, showing floral tributes after his death.
Michael Jackson was born on August 29, 1958, the eighth of ten children to an African American working-class family, in Gary, Indiana, an industrial suburb of Chicago. His mother, Katherine Esther Scruse Katherine Jackson , was a devout Jehovah's Witness Jehovah's Witnesses , and his father, Joseph Walter "Joe" Jackson Joe Jackson (manager) , a steel mill worker who performed with an R&B band called The Falcons. Jackson had three sisters: Rebbie Rebbie Jackson , La Toya La Toya Jackson , and Janet Janet Jackson , and six brothers: Jackie Jackie Jackson , Tito Tito Jackson , Jermaine Jermaine Jackson , Marlon Marlon Jackson , Brandon (Marlon's twin brother, who died shortly after birth) and Randy Randy Jackson (musician) .
Jackson had a troubled relationship with his father, Joe. He stated that he was physically and emotionally abused during incessant rehearsals, with whippings, and name-calling, though he admitted his father's strict discipline played a large role in his success. In one altercation recalled by Marlon, Joseph held Michael upside down by one leg and "pummeled him over and over again with his hand, hitting him on his back and buttocks". Joseph would also grab his sons and push them with great force against the wall. One night while Michael was asleep, Joseph climbed into his room through the bedroom window, wearing a fright mask and screamed, in hopes to scare him. He said he wanted to teach the children not to leave the window open when they went to sleep. For years afterward, Jackson said he suffered nightmares about being kidnapped from his bedroom.
Jackson first spoke openly about his childhood abuse in an interview with Oprah Winfrey broadcast on February 10, 1993 live from around the world. He admitted that he had often cried from loneliness and he would vomit on the sight of his father. Jackson's father was also said to have verbally abused Jackson, saying that he had a fat nose on numerous occasions. In fact, Michael Jackson's deep dissatisfaction with his appearance, his nightmares and chronic sleep problems, his tendency to remain hyper-compliant especially with his father, and to remain child-like throughout his adult life are in many ways consistent with the effects of this chronic maltreatment he endured as a young child. In an interview with Martin Bashir, later included in the 2003 broadcast of Living with Michael Jackson, Jackson acknowledged that his father hurt him when he was a child, but was nonetheless a "genius," as he admitted his father's strict discipline played a huge role in his success. When Bashir dismissed the positive remark and continued asking about beatings, Jackson put his hand over his face and objected to the questions. He recalled that Joseph sat in a chair with a belt in his hand as he and his siblings rehearsed, and that "if you didn't do it the right way, he would tear you up, really get you".
He showed talent early in his life, performing in front of classmates during a Christmas recital in kindergarten. In 1964, he and Marlon joined the Jackson Brothers – a band formed by brothers Jackie, Tito, and Jermaine—as backup musicians playing congas and tambourine. Jackson later began performing backup vocals and dancing; at the age of eight, he and Jermaine assumed lead vocals, and the group's name was changed to The Jackson 5.
The Jackson 5 recorded several songs, including "Big Boy Big Boy (The Jackson 5 song) ", for the local record label Steeltown Steeltown Records in 1967, and signed with Motown Records in 1968. The group set a chart record when its first four singles ("I Want You Back", "ABC ABC (song) ", "The Love You Save", and "I'll Be There I'll Be There (The Jackson 5 song) ") peaked at number one on the Billboard Hot 100 Billboard Hot 100 .
Move to Epic and Off the Wall (1975–1981)
The Jackson 5 signed a new contract with CBS Records Sony Music Entertainment in June 1975, joining the Philadelphia International Records division, later Epic Records, They continued to tour internationally, releasing six more albums between 1976 and 1984, during which Jackson was the lead songwriter, writing hits such as "Shake Your Body (Down to the Ground)", "This Place Hotel," and "Can You Feel It". In 1979, Jackson broke his nose during a complex dance routine. His subsequent rhinoplasty was not a complete success; he complained of breathing difficulties that would affect his career. He was referred to Dr. Steven Hoefflin Steven Hoefflin , who performed Jackson's second rhinoplasty and subsequent operations.
Jones and Jackson produced the Off the Wall album together. At the album's pre-release party, Michael, himself, stated that Little Richard had a "huge influence" on him. Songwriters for the album included Jackson, Heatwave's Heatwave (band) Rod Temperton, Stevie Wonder, and Paul McCartney. Released in 1979, it was the first album to generate four U.S. top 10 hits, including the chart-topping singles "Don't Stop 'til You Get Enough" and "Rock with You Rock with You (Michael Jackson song) ". In 1980, Jackson won three awards at the American Music Awards for his solo efforts: Favorite Soul/R&B Album, Favorite Male Soul/R&B Artist, and Favorite Soul/R&B Single for "Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough". That year, he also won Billboard Music Awards Billboard Music Award for Top Black Artist and Top Black Album and a Grammy Award for Best Male R&B Vocal Performance, also for "Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough". Despite its commercial success, Jackson felt Off the Wall should have made a much bigger impact, and was determined to exceed expectations with his next release. In 1980, he secured the highest royalty rate in the music industry: 37 percent of wholesale album profit.
Thriller and Motown 25 (1982–83)
In 1982, Jackson contributed the song "Someone In the Dark" to the storybook for the film E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial; the record won a Grammy for Best Album for Children. That same year Jackson issued his second Epic album, Thriller, which surprisingly became the most commercially successful album of all time with nearly no promotion. The album remained in the top 10 of the Billboard 200 Billboard 200 for 80 consecutive weeks and 37 of those weeks at the peak position. It was the first album to have seven Billboard Hot 100 top 10 singles, including "Billie Jean", "Beat It," and "Wanna Be Startin' Somethin'." Thriller was certified for 29 million shipments by the RIAA Recording Industry Association of America , giving it Double Diamond List of music recording sales certifications status in the United States. It is the best-selling album of all time in the United States. It was, and currently remains, the best-selling album of all time List of best-selling albums worldwide , with 110 million copies worldwide.
Jackson's attorney John Branca noted that Jackson had the highest royalty rate in the music industry at that point: approximately $2 for every album sold. He was also making record-breaking profits from sales of CDs and The Making of Michael Jackson's Thriller, a documentary produced by Jackson and John Landis. Funded by MTV, the documentary sold over 350,000 copies in a few months. The era saw the arrival of novelties like dolls modeled after Michael Jackson, which appeared in stores in May 1984 at a price of $12. Biographer J. Randy Taraborrelli writes that, "Thriller stopped selling like a leisure item — like a magazine, a toy, tickets to a hit movie — and started selling like a household staple."
during his performance on Motown 25
Time described Jackson's influence at that point as "Star of records, radio, rock video. A one-man rescue team for the music business. A songwriter who sets the beat for a decade. A dancer with the fanciest feet on the street. A singer who cuts across all boundaries of taste and style and color too".
Jackson's po***rity would soar further. On March 25, 1983, he performed live on the Motown 25: Yesterday, Today, Forever television special, both with The Jackson 5 and on his own singing "Billie Jean". Wearing a distinctive black sequin jacket Billie Jean black sequin jacket and golf glove decorated with rhinestones, he debuted his signature dance move, the moonwalk moonwalk (dance) , which former Soul Train dancer and Shalamar member, Jeffrey Daniel had taught him 3 years before. His performances during the event were seen by 47 million viewers, and drew comparisons to Elvis Presley's and the The Beatles' appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show. Anna Kisselgoff of the The New York Times said, "The moonwalk that he made famous is an apt metaphor for his dance style. How does he do it? As a technician, he is a great illusionist, a genuine mime. His ability to keep one leg straight as he glides while the other bends and seems to walk requires perfect timing." Ian Inglis, author of Performance and Po***r Music: History, Place and Time (2006) noted Jackson had created a pivotal turning point in the history of po***r music "in that [his performance] marked the shift of emphasis from musical performance to visual presentation. In stark contrast to the other, live, performances of Motown 25, Jackson performed to a pre-recorded soundtrack, lip-syncing to his multi-layered pre-recorded voice, thus indicating that the visual reenactment of music video imagery had become an integral, and perhaps dominant, part of live performance."
Pepsi, "We Are the World" and business career (1984–85)
On January 27, 1984, Michael and other members of the Jacksons filmed a Pepsi Cola commercial, overseen by executive Philip Dusenberry, at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles. In front of a full house of fans during a simulated concert, pyrotechnics accidentally set Jackson's hair on fire. He suffered second-degree burns to his scalp. Jackson underwent treatment to hide the scars on his scalp, and he also had his third rhinoplasty shortly thereafter.
and first lady Nancy Reagan, 1984
On May 14, 1984, Jackson was invited to the White House to receive an award from President Ronald Reagan for his support of charities that helped people overcome alcohol and drug abuse. Jackson won eight awards during the Grammys that year.
Unlike later albums, Thriller did not have an official tour to promote it, but the 1984 Victory Tour Victory Tour (The Jacksons tour) , headlined by The Jacksons, showcased much of Jackson's new solo material to more than two million Americans. He donated all the funds (around $8 million) raised from the Victory Tour to charity. He also co-wrote the charity single "We Are the World" in 1985 with Lionel Richie, which was released worldwide to aid the poor in the U.S. and Africa. It became one of the best-selling singles of all time, with nearly 30 million copies sold and millions of dollars donated to famine relief.
In 1985, ATV Music, a music publishing company owning thousands of music copyrights, including the Northern Songs catalogue that contained the majority of the Lennon/McCartney compositions recorded by The Beatles, was put up for sale. Jackson had become interested in owning music catalogs after working with Paul McCartney in the early 1980s: Jackson had learned McCartney made approximately $40 million a year from other people's songs. McCartney's attorney assured Jackson's attorney that McCartney was not interested in bidding on ATV: McCartney reportedly said "It's too pricey". However, McCartney later changed his mind and tried to persuade John Lennon's widow Yoko Ono to join him in a joint bid. Ono declined, and McCartney pulled out. Jackson eventually beat the rest of the competition in negotiations that lasted 10 months, purchasing the catalog for $47.5 million.
Appearance, tabloids, Bad, autobiography and films (1986–87)
Jackson's skin had been a medium-brown color for the entire duration of his youth, but starting in the mid 1980s, it gradually grew paler. The change gained widespread media coverage, including rumors that he was bleaching his skin. According to J. Randy Taraborrelli's biography, in 1986, Jackson was diagnosed with vitiligo and lupus Systemic lupus erythematosus ; the vitiligo partially lightened his skin, and the lupus was in remission remission (medicine) ; both illnesses made him sensitive to sunlight. (His long-term dermatologist Dr. Arnold Klein confirmed this on Larry King Live, after his death.) The treatments he used for his condition further lightened his skin tone, and, with the application of pancake makeup to even out blotches, he could appear very pale. The structure of his face had also changed: several surgeons speculated that he had undergone various nasal surgeries, a forehead lift, thinned lips, and cheekbone surgery - although Jackson denies this and insists that he only had surgery on his nose.
Jackson lost weight in the early 1980s because of a change in diet and a desire for "a dancer's body". Witnesses reported that he was often dizzy and speculated that he was suffering from anorexia nervosa; periods of weight loss would become a recurring problem later in life. Some medical professionals have further speculated that he was suffering from body dysmorphic disorder, a psychological condition whereby the sufferer dislikes his appearance and has no concept of how he is viewed by others.
, here in the early stages of the disease
He became the subject of increasingly sensational reports. In 1986, the tabloids ran a story claiming that Jackson slept in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber hyperbaric medicine to slow the aging process; he was pictured lying down in a glass box. Although the claim was untrue, Jackson had disseminated the fabricated story himself. When Jackson bought a chimpanzee called Bubbles Bubbles (chimpanzee) from a laboratory, it was reported as an example of increasing detachment from reality. It was reported that Jackson had offered to buy the bones of Joseph Merrick (the "elephant man") and although untrue, Jackson did not deny the story.
These reports became embedded in the public consciousness, inspiring the nickname "Wacko Jacko," which Jackson came to despise. Responding to the gossip, Jackson remarked to reporter Randy Taraborrelli:
Jackson starred in the 3-D film Captain EO, directed by Francis Ford Coppola. It was the most expensive film produced on a per-minute basis at the time, and was later hosted in Disney The Walt Disney Company theme parks. Disneyland featured the film in its Tomorrowland area for nearly 11 years, while Walt Disney World Walt Disney World Resort screened the film in its EPCOT theme park from 1986 to 1994. With the industry expecting another major hit, Jackson's first album in five years, Bad Bad (album) (1987), was highly anticipated. It had lower sales than Thriller, but was still a substantial commercial success, spawning seven hit singles in the U.S., five of which ("I Just Can't Stop Loving You", "Bad Bad (Michael Jackson song) ", "The Way You Make Me Feel", "Man in the Mirror" and "Dirty Diana") reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 charts, more than any other album. As of 2008, the album had sold 30 million copies worldwide.
In 1987, Jackson disassociated himself from the Jehovah's Witnesses, in response to their disapproval of the Thriller video Michael Jackson's Thriller . The Bad World Tour began on September 12 that year, finishing on January 14, 1989. He broke a Guinness World Record when 504,000 people attended seven sold-out shows at Wembley Stadium Wembley Stadium (1923) . He performed a total of 123 concerts to an audience of 4.4 million people, and gained a further Guinness World Record when the tour grossed him $125 million. During the trip he invited underprivileged children to watch for free, and gave donations to hospitals, orphanages, and other charities.
Autobiography, changing appearance and Neverland (1988–1990)
In 1988, Jackson released his first autobiography, Moon Walk Moonwalk (book) , which took four years to complete and sold 200,000 copies. Jackson wrote about his childhood, The Jackson 5, and the abuse he had suffered. He also wrote about his facial appearance, saying he had had two rhinoplastic surgeries and dimple cleft chin created in his chin. The musician then released a film called Moonwalker, which featured live footage and short films that starred Jackson and Joe Pesci. The film was originally intended to be released to theaters but due to financial issues, the film was released direct to video. It debuted atop the Billboard Top Music Video Cassette chart, staying there for 22 weeks. It was eventually knocked off the top spot by Michael Jackson: The Legend Continues. In 1989, his annual earnings from album sales, endorsements, and concerts was estimated at $125 million for that year alone.
The nickname was po***rized by Elizabeth Taylor when she presented him with the Soul Train Heritage Award in 1989, proclaiming him "the true king of pop, rock and soul." President George H. W. Bush presented him with The White House's special "Artist of the Decade." From 1985 to 1990, he donated $500,000 to the United Negro College Fund, and all of the profits from his single "Man in the Mirror" went to charity. Jackson's live rendition of "You Were There" at Sammy Davis Jr.'s Sammy Davis, Jr. 60th birthday celebration received an Emmy nomination. In the United States, the album's first single "Black or White" was its biggest hit, reaching number one on the Billboard Hot 100 and remaining there for seven weeks, with similar chart performances worldwide. In the UK and other parts of Europe, "Heal the World" was the biggest hit from the album; it sold 450,000 copies in the UK and spent five weeks at number two in 1992. He sold the broadcast rights to his Dangerous world tour to HBO for $20 million, a record-breaking deal that still stands.
Following the illness and death of Ryan White, Jackson helped draw public attention to HIV/AIDS, something that was still controversial at the time. He publicly pleaded with the Clinton Administration Presidency of Bill Clinton at Bill Clinton's Inaugural Gala to give more money to HIV/AIDS charities and research. In a high-profile visit to Africa, Jackson visited several countries, among them Gabon and Egypt. His first stop to Gabon was greeted with a sizable and enthusiastic reception of more than 100,000 people, some of them carrying signs that read, "Welcome Home Michael." A year after Jackson met the boy, Evan administered sodium amytal to Jordan, a controversial sedative. Under influence of the drug, Jordan told his father that Jackson had touched his ***. The Chandlers initially wanted a payment, but Jackson refused, however due to deteriorating health he could not endure a long trial 'like O.J. O. J. Simpson murder case '. Both parties engaged in unsuccessful negotiations to reach a financial settlement. Jordan told a psychiatrist and later police that he and Jackson had engaged in acts of kissing, masturbation and oral ***, as well as giving a detailed description of what he alleged were the singer's genitals.
The father was tape-recorded discussing his intention to pursue charges, where he said, "If I go through with this, I win big-time. There's no way I lose. I will get everything I want and they will be destroyed forever ... Michael's career will be over". In the same conversation, when asked how this would affect his son, Chandler replied, "That's irrelevant to me...It will be a massacre if I don't get what I want. It's going to be bigger than all us put together...This man [Jackson] is going to be humiliated beyond belief...He will not sell one more record". The recorded conversation was a critical aspect of Jackson's defense against the upcoming allegation made against him. He and his supporters argue that he was the victim of a jealous father whose only goal was to extort money from the singer. Jackson agreed to a 25-minute strip search, conducted by police and doctors at his ranch, required to see if a description provided by Jordan of Jackson's genitals was accurate. Doctors concluded there were strong similarities, but it was not a definitive match. On January 1, 1994, Jackson's insurance company settled with the Chandlers out of court for $22 million, after which Jordan stopped co-operating regarding criminal proceedings. Jackson was never charged, and the state closed its criminal investigation, citing lack of evidence.
In May 1994, Jackson married singer-songwriter Lisa Marie Presley, the daughter of Elvis Presley. They had first met in 1975, during one of Jackson's family engagements at the MGM Grand Hotel and Casino, and were reconnected through a mutual friend in early 1993. They stayed in contact every day over the telephone. As the child molestation accusations became public, Jackson became dependent on Presley for emotional support; she was concerned about his faltering health and addiction to drugs. Presley explained, "I believed he didn't do anything wrong and that he was wrongly accused and yes I started falling for him. I wanted to save him. I felt that I could do it." In a phone call he made to her, she described him as high, incoherent and delusional. At the time, the tabloid media speculated that the wedding was a ploy to prop up Jackson's public image. Jackson and Presley divorced less than two years later, remaining friendly.
HIStory, second marriage and fatherhood (1995–99)
In 1995, Jackson merged his ATV Music catalog with Sony's publishing division creating Sony/ATV Music Publishing. Jackson retained half-ownership of the company, earned $95 million upfront as well as the rights to even more songs List of Sony/ATV Music Publishing artists . He then released the double album HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I. The first disc, HIStory Begins, was a 15-track greatest hits album, and was later reissued as Greatest Hits – HIStory Vol. I in 2001, while the second disc, HIStory Continues, contained 15 new songs. The album debuted at number one on the charts and has been certified for seven million shipments in the US. It is the best-selling multiple-disc album of all-time, with 20 million copies (40 million units) sold worldwide. HIStory received a Grammy nomination for Album of the Year Grammy Award for Album of the Year . "You Are Not Alone" was the second single released from HIStory; it holds the Guinness World Record for the first song ever to debut at number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. "Earth Song" was the third single released from HIStory, and topped the UK singles chart for six weeks over Christmas 1995; it sold a million copies, making it Jackson's most successful single in the UK. During the Australian leg of the HIStory World Tour, Jackson married dermatology nurse Deborah Jeanne Rowe Debbie Rowe on November 14, 1996 in an impromptu ceremony close to his Sydney hotel room. She gave birth to Michael's first two children: a son named Michael Joseph Jr (commonly known as Prince), and a daughter, Paris-Michael Katherine. Rowe and Jackson first met in the mid-1980s, when Jackson was diagnosed with vitiligo. She spent many years treating his illness as well as providing emotional support. They built a strong friendship, then became romantically involved. Originally, there were no plans to marry, but following Rowe's first pregnancy, Jackson's mother intervened and persuaded them to do so. The couple divorced in 1999 but remained friends, and Rowe gave full custody of the children to Jackson. In the US, the album was certified platinum, but only reached number 24. Later that month, Jackson organized a set of "Michael Jackson & Friends" benefit concerts in Germany and Korea. Other artists involved included Slash Slash (musician) , The Scorpions Scorpions (band) , Boyz II Men, Luther Vandross, Mariah Carey, A. R. Rahman, Prabhu Deva Sundaram Prabhu Deva , Shobana Chandrakumar, Andrea Bocelli and Luciano Pavarotti. The proceeds went to the "Nelson Mandela Children's Fund", the Red Cross International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and UNESCO.
Label dispute, Invincible and third child (2000–03)
In October 2001, Jackson released Invincible Invincible (Michael Jackson album) . This was his first full-length album in six years, and it turned out to be the last album of new material he released while still alive. The release of the album was preceded by a dispute between Jackson and his record label, Sony Music Entertainment. Jackson had expected the licenses to the masters of his albums to revert to him sometime in the early 2000s. Once he had the licenses, he would be able to promote the material however he pleased and he would also be able to keep all the profits. However, due to various clauses in the contract, the revert date turned out to be many years away. Jackson discovered that the attorney who represented him in the deal was also representing Sony. The show also featured performances by Mýa, Usher Usher (entertainer) , Whitney Houston, 'N Sync, Destiny's Child, Monica Monica (entertainer) , Luther Vandross, and Slash, among other artists. However, the sales for Invincible were lower than those of his previous releases, due in part to a lack of promotion, no supporting world tour and the label dispute. The album also came out at a bad time for the music industry in general. He charged that Mottola had called his colleague Irv Gotti a "fat nigger". Sony refused to renew Jackson's contract, and claimed that a $25 million promotional campaign had failed because Jackson refused to tour in the United States.
Jackson's third child, Prince Michael Jackson II (nicknamed "Blanket") was born in 2002. The mother's identity is unknown, but Jackson has said the child was the result of artificial insemination from a surrogate mother surrogacy and his own sperm. In November of that year, Jackson brought his newborn son onto the balcony of his room at the Hotel Adlon in Berlin, as fans stood below, holding him in his right arm, with a cloth loosely draped over the baby's face. The baby was briefly extended over a railing, four stories above ground level, causing widespread criticism in the media. Jackson later apologized for the incident, calling it "a terrible mistake". Sony released a compilation of Jackson's hits Number Ones (Michael Jackson album) on CD and DVD. In the US, the album was certified platinum by the RIAA; in the UK it was certified for shipments of at least 1.2 million units.
Second child ***ual abuse allegations (2003–05)
In a series of interviews with Martin Bashir, broadcast in 2003, as Living with Michael Jackson, Jackson was seen holding hands and discussing sleeping arrangements with Gavin Arvizo, 13, who later accused him of ***ual abuse child ***ual abuse . Shortly after the documentary aired, Jackson was charged with seven counts of child molestation and two counts of administering an intoxicating agent Alcoholic beverage#United States of America in relation to Arvizo. After the trial, in a highly publicized relocation he moved to the Persian Gulf island of Bahrain, as a guest of Sheikh Abdullah Abdullah Bin Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa .
Final years (2006–09)
Reports of financial problems for Jackson became frequent in 2006, after the closure of the main house on the Neverland Ranch as a cost-cutting measure. One prominent financial issue concerned a $270 million loan secured against his music publishing holdings. After delayed repayments on the loan, a refinancing package shifted the loans from Bank of America to debt specialists Fortress Investments Fortress Investment Group . A new package proposed by Sony would have had Jackson borrow an additional $300 million and reduce the interest rate payable on the loan, while giving Sony the future option to buy half of Jackson's stake in their jointly owned publishing company (leaving Jackson with a 25% stake). Despite these loans, according to Forbes, Jackson was still making as much as $75 million a year from his publishing partnership with Sony alone.
Jackson was awarded the Diamond Award Chopard Diamond award on November 15, 2006, for selling over 100 million albums, at the World Music Awards. In late 2006, he agreed to share joint custody of his first two children with ex-wife Debbie Rowe. Jackson and Sony bought Famous Music LLC Famous Music from Viacom in 2007. This deal gave him the rights to songs by Eminem, Shakira and Beck, among others.
The 25th anniversary of Thriller Thriller (album) was marked by the release of Thriller 25, recorded in Ireland, it featured the previously unreleased song "For All Time" and re-mixes. Two remixes were released as singles to moderate success: "The Girl Is Mine 2008 The Girl Is Mine#The Girl Is Mine 2008 " and "Wanna Be Startin' Somethin' 2008". Thriller 25 sold well as a re-issue, peaking at number one in eight countries and Europe. In 12 weeks Thriller 25 sold over three million copies worldwide.
In September 2007 it was reported that Jackson had returned to the studio to begin work on a new album. He was said to have been working in New York with songwriter and producer Will.i.am and in Las Vegas with producers Akon and RedOne. In an interview with HitQuarters, RedOne commented on the experience, "He is very inspirational and very open. It seems like there is no limit in what he knows about music, about productions and about emotions." King of Pop did reach the top 10 in most countries where it was issued, and also sold well as an import in other countries.
Fortress Investments threatened to foreclose on Neverland Ranch, which Jackson used as collateral for loans running into many tens of millions of dollars. However, Fortress opted to sell Jackson's debts to Colony Capital LLC Colony Capital . In November, Jackson transferred Neverland Ranch's title to Sycamore Valley Ranch Company LLC, which was a joint venture between Jackson and Colony Capital LLC. This deal cleared Jackson's debt, and he reportedly even gained an extra $35 million from the venture. At the time of his death, Jackson still owned a stake in Neverland/Sycamore Valley, but it is unknown how large that stake was. In September 2008, financial concerns prompted Jackson to enter negotiations with Julien's Auction House Julien's Auctions to display and auction a large collection of memorabilia amounting to approximately 1390 lots. The auction was scheduled to take place between April 22 and April 25. Though an exhibition of the lots opened on 9900 Wilshire Blvd between April 14 and 25, the auction was eventually cancelled at Jackson's request.
In March 2009, Jackson announced in a press conference at London's O2 arena The O2 arena (London) that he would perform there in major comeback concerts titled This Is It This Is It (Michael Jackson concerts) . The shows, Jackson's first major series of concerts since the HIStory World Tour finished in 1997, had been cited as one of the year's most important musical events with over one million people attending in total. Jackson suggested possible retirement after the shows; in his own words it would be his "final curtain call". Although initially a 10 date concert, it was increased to 50 dates after record breaking ticket sales. Jackson rehearsed in Los Angeles in the weeks leading up to the tour under the direction of choreographer/director Kenny Ortega. AEG Live, the concert promoters, released a promotional video that took up an entire commercial break, setting a record for ITV. According to Jackson's website, ticket sales for the concerts broke several records. Randy Phillips, president and chief executive of AEG Live, stated that the first 10 dates alone would have earned the singer approximately £50 million. The concerts would have commenced on July 13, 2009 and finished on March 6, 2010. Less than three weeks before the first show was due to begin in London and with all concerts being sold out, Jackson died of cardiac arrest.
Columbia Pictures made a feature documentary concert-film Michael Jackson's This Is It from the rehearsal and pre-recorded footage. The contract for the film sti***ted that a cut of the film must be screened for Jackson's estate, which stands to receive 90 percent of the profits. A final cut was released on October 28, 2009, for a limited 2 week run in theatres worldwide. A promotional single titled "This Is It This Is It (Michael Jackson song) " was released on October 12, with a new compilation album of the same name This Is It (Michael Jackson album) released worldwide on October 26, and in North America on October 27, the day before the Michael Jackson's This Is It documentary film, which became the highest grossing documentary or concert movie of all time (earning more than $260 million worldwide). Two versions of the new song appear on the album, which also features original masters of Michael Jackson's hits in the order in which they appear in the movie. It contains a bonus disc with previously unreleased versions of more Jackson hits, as well as a previously unheard spoken word poem entitled "Planet Earth." As a result of increased sales of Jackson's music after his death, he became the best selling artist of 2009 in the United States selling over 8.2 million albums and 31 million albums worldwide.
Following the massive surge in sales of Jackson's catalogue, Sony announced that they have extended their relationship with his material. The distribution rights held by Sony Music were due to expire in 2015.On June 25, 2009, Jackson collapsed at his rented mansion at 100 North Carolwood Drive in the Holmby Hills Holmby Hills, Los Angeles, California district of Los Angeles. Attempts at resuscitating him by Conrad Murray, his personal physician, were unsuccessful. Los Angeles Fire Department paramedics received a 911 9-1-1 call at 12:22 (PDT Pacific Time Zone ) (19:22 UTC), arriving three minutes later at Jackson's location. He was reportedly not breathing and CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed. Resuscitation efforts continued en route to the Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, and for an hour after arriving there at 13:13 (20:13 UTC). Jackson's death triggered a global outpour of grief.
The news spread quickly online, causing websites to slow down and crash Crash (computing) from user overload. Both TMZ and the Los Angeles Times suffered outages. Google initially believed that the input from millions of people searching for "Michael Jackson" meant that the search engine was under attack Denial-of-service_attack#Distributed_attack . Twitter reported a crash, as did Wikipedia at 3:15 p.m. PDT (6:15 p.m. EST). The Wikimedia Foundation reported nearly a million visitors to Jackson's biography within one hour, probably the most visitors in a one-hour period to any article in Wikipedia's history. AOL Instant Messenger collapsed for 40 minutes. AOL called it a "seminal moment in Internet history", adding, "We've never seen anything like it in terms of scope or depth."
Around 15% of Twitter posts—or 5,000 tweets Wiktionary:tweet#Noun per minute—reportedly mentioned Jackson after the news broke, compared to the 5% recalled as having mentioned the Iranian elections 2009 Iranian election or the flu pandemic 2009 flu pandemic that had made headlines earlier in the year. MTV and Black Entertainment Television (BET) aired marathons Marathon (television) of Jackson's music videos. Jackson specials aired on multiple television stations around the world. The British soap opera EastEnders added a last-minute scene, in which one character Denise Wicks tells another Patrick Trueman about the news, to the June 26 episode. Jackson was the topic of every front-page headline in the daily British tabloid The Sun The Sun (newspaper) for about two weeks following his death. During the same period, the three major U.S. networks' evening newscasts—ABC's World News World News with Charles Gibson , CBS Evening News, and NBC Nightly News—devoted 34 percent of their broadcast time to him. Magazines including TIME Time Magazine published commemorative editions. A scene that had featured Jackson's sister La Toya was cut from the film Brüno Brüno (film) out of respect toward Jackson's family.
Jackson's memorial was held on July 7, 2009, at the Staples Center in Los Angeles, preceded by a private family service at Forest Lawn Memorial Park's Hall of Liberty Forest Lawn Memorial Park (Hollywood Hills)#Court of Liberty . Jackson's casket was present during the memorial but no information was released about the final disposition of the body. While some unofficial reports claimed a worldwide audience as high as one billion people the U.S. audience was estimated by Nielsen to be 31.1 million, an amount comparable to the estimated 35.1 million that watched the 2004 burial of former president Ronald Reagan Death and state funeral of Ronald Reagan , and the estimated 33.1 million Americans who watched the 1997 funeral for Princess Diana Funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales .
Stevie Wonder, Lionel Richie, Mariah Carey, John Mayer, Jennifer Hudson, Usher Usher (entertainer) , Jermaine Jackson, and Shaheen Jafargholi performed at the event. Berry Gordy and Smokey Robinson gave eulogies, while Queen Latifah read, "We had him," a poem written for the occasion by Maya Angelou. The Reverend Al Sharpton received a standing ovation with cheers when he told Jackson's children, "Wasn't nothing strange about your Daddy. It was strange what your Daddy had to deal with. But he dealt with it anyway." Jackson's 11-year-old daughter, Paris Katherine, cried as she told the crowd, "Ever since I was born, Daddy has been the best father you could ever imagine ... I just wanted to say I love him ... so much."
On August 24 several news outlets quoted anonymous sources as stating that the Los Angeles coroner had decided to treat Jackson's death as a homicide; this was later confirmed by the coroner on August 28. At the time of death, Jackson had been administered propofol, lorazepam and midazolam.
Law enforcement officials are currently conducting a manslaughter investigation of his personal physician, Conrad Murray. Jackson was buried on September 3, 2009, at Forest Lawn Memorial Park Forest Lawn Memorial Park, Glendale in Glendale, California. On February 8, 2010, Jackson's personal physician Conrad Murray was charged with involuntary manslaughter by prosecutors in Los Angeles.
Jackson's music genre takes roots in R&B, Motown, pop and soul soul music . He had been influenced by the work of contemporary musicians such as Little Richard, James Brown, Jackie Wilson, Diana Ross, David Ruffin, Gene Kelly, Fred Astaire, Sammy Davis, Jr., The Isley Brothers, and the Bee Gees.
Gritty lead vocals on the verse were displayed by the release of "Bad" in 1987 and lighter tones employed on the chorus. The turn of the 1990s saw the release of the introspective album Dangerous. The New York Times noted that on some tracks, "he gulps for breath, his voice quivers with anxiety or drops to a desperate whisper, hissing through clenched teeth" and he had a "wretched tone". Nelson George summed up Jackson's vocals by stating "The grace, the aggression, the growling, the natural boyishness, the falsetto, the smoothness—that combination of elements mark him as a major vocalist".
Music videos and choreography
Referred to as the King of Music Videos, Steve Huey of Allmusic observed how Jackson transformed the music video into an art form and a promotional tool through complex story lines, dance routines, special effects and famous cameo appearances; simultaneously breaking down racial barriers. According to director Vincent Paterson, who collaborated with the singer on several music videos, Jackson conceptualized many of the darker, bleak themes in his filmography.
used in the music video for "Smooth Criminal".
Before Thriller, Jackson struggled to receive coverage on MTV, allegedly because he was African American. Pressure from CBS Records persuaded MTV to start showing "Billie Jean" and later "Beat It", leading to a lengthy partnership with Jackson, also helping other black music artists gain recognition. MTV employees deny any racism in their coverage, or pressure to change their stance. MTV maintains that they played rock music, regardless of race. The po***rity of his videos on MTV helped to put the relatively young channel "on the map"; MTV's focus shifted in favor of pop and R&B. His performance on Motown 25: Yesterday, Today, Forever changed the scope of live stage show; "That Jackson lip-synced 'Billie Jean' is, in itself, not extraordinary, but the fact that it did not change the impact of the performance is extraordinary; whether the performance was live or lip-synced made no difference to the audience" thus creating an era in which artists re-create the spectacle of music video imagery on stage. The choreography in Thriller has become a part of global pop culture, replicated everywhere from Indian films Cinema of India to prisons in the Philippines Thriller (viral video) . The Thriller short film marked an increase in scale for music videos, and has been named the most successful music video ever by the Guinness World Records. For "Smooth Criminal", Jackson experimented with an innovative "anti-gravity lean" in his performances, for which he was granted U.S. Patent No. 5,255,452. Although the music video for "Leave Me Alone" was not officially released in the US, in 1989, it was nominated for four Billboard Music Video Awards, winning three; the same year it won a Golden Lion Award for the quality of the special effects used in its production. In 1990, "Leave Me Alone" won a Grammy for Best Music Video, Short Form Grammy Award for Best Short Form Music Video .
The MTV Video Vanguard Artist of the Decade Award MTV Video Vanguard Award was given to Jackson to celebrate his accomplishments in the art form in the 1980s; the following year the award was renamed in his honor. "Black or White" was accompanied by a controversial music video, which, on November 14, 1991, simultaneously premiered in 27 countries with an estimated audience of 500 million people, the largest viewing ever for a music video. Along with Jackson, it featured Macaulay Culkin, Peggy Lipton and George Wendt. It helped usher in morphing as an important technology in music videos.
" was shot primarily in black and white, and at a cost of $7 million.
"Remember the Time" was an elaborate production, and became one of his longest videos at over nine minutes. Set in ancient Egypt, it featured groundbreaking visual effects and appearances by Eddie Murphy, Iman Iman (model) and Magic Johnson, along with a distinct complex dance routine. The video for "In the Closet" was Jackson's most ***ually provocative piece. It featured supermodel Naomi Campbell in a courtship dance with Jackson. The video was banned in South Africa because of its imagery. The song and its accompanying video are a response to the backlash Jackson received from the media after being accused of child molestation in 1993. A year later, it won a Grammy for Best Music Video, Short Form; shortly afterwards Guinness World Records listed it as the most expensive music video ever made List of most expensive music videos at a cost of $7 million.
"Earth Song" was accompanied by an expensive and well-received music video that gained a Grammy nomination for Best Music Video, Short Form in 1997. The video had an environmental theme, showing images of animal cruelty, deforestation, pollution and war. Using special effects, time is reversed so that life returns, wars ends, and the forests re-grow. Released in 1997 and premiering at the 1996 Cannes Film Festival, Ghosts Ghosts (Michael Jackson film) was a short film written by Jackson and Stephen King and directed by Stan Winston. The video for Ghosts is over 38 minutes long and holds the Guinness World Record as the world's longest music video.
Phillip Bloch said "Michael Jackson was not influenced by fashion, fashion was influenced by him." From early on Jackson was described as a person with an utterly unique sense of style wearing fringed shirts, platform heels, and wide bell-bottom pants with a “Huggy Bear” inspired hat to top off his look. During Off The Wall Off the Wall (album) , he would update his style wearing tuxedo jackets, pegged pants, thick white socks with black shiny loafers, instantly giving a classic look, new flair, and originality bringing in the start of his iconoclastic style. During the Thriller era Jackson would become a fashion icon and bring about the po***rity of items that he wore in his music videos, at award ceremonies, and on stage performances such as his Beat It red jacket, aviator sunglasses, military jackets, jheri curl, high pants with white glitter socks, the Billie Jean black jacket, his black fedora hat, and most famously his single sequin white glove that he first wore on his left hand on the Motown 25 special.
Throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, Jackson began to wear his iconic military-influenced outfits in silver, with his trademark armbands, during the Bad Tour. He would continue to perform in these outfits this time in gold during the Dangerous Tour, and during the HIStory Tour, where he wore a more futuristic military space outfit. Towards the mid and late 1990s, Jackson embraced a softer look wearing mostly lightweight flowy shirts and even appearing bare chested; though he occasionally reverted to his military inspired outfits. During his trials throughout the later years, Jackson wore a surgical mask and carried an umbrella to protect him from the sun. He was subsequently criticized by the media and legal analysts in the 2005 child abuse trial for not dressing in a manner appropriate for a court appearance. Mary Fulginiti Jenow, a former federal prosecutor who is now a criminal defense lawyer described Jackson as looking ready to "break out into the moonwalk." During his final public appearance at Ed Hardy's designer Christian Audigier birthday party, Jackson and Audigier began talks and later started to work together on a clothing line that would be composed of items such as red jacket with Jackson’s portrait on it, a black leather belt with large buckle reading ‘BAD,’ silver socks, silver gloves, and an umbrella. Audigier is said to be busy putting together the final pieces of the brand.
Jackson's creative sense of style has also made a huge impact on the younger generation. He has been described as having an innovative sense of style that impacted the trendsetters of today who mimmick his fashion like Usher Usher (entertainer) , Chris Brown Chris Brown (American singer) , Beyonce, Rihanna, Kanye West, and many others. His style has inspired the fashion-forward for two decades and continues to do so. On November 24, 2009, some of Michael Jackson's memorabilia was auctioned in New York including the Rhinstone Glove used during his first moonwalk performance, which his auctioned off for $350,000, nine times its expected price, to Hoffman Ma of Hong Kong, a Chinese businessman. Among other items were a 1989 "Bad" tour jacket which sold for $225,000 and a fedora hat which sold for $22,000., set in 1984
Jackson throughout his career transformed the art of the music video and paved the way for modern pop music. Jackson's work, distinctive musical sound and vocal style have and still do influence scores of hip hop hip hop music , rock rock music , pop pop music and R&B Contemporary R&B artists, including Beyonce, Mariah Carey, Usher Usher (entertainer) , Chris Brown Chris Brown (American singer) , Britney Spears, Justin Timberlake, 50 Cent, The Game The Game (rapper) , Fall Out Boy, Green Day, Miley Cyrus, John Mayer, Lenny Kravitz, and R. Kelly.
For much of his career, he had an "unparalleled" level of worldwide influence over the younger generation through his musical and humanitarian contributions. Jackson's music and videos, such as Thriller, helped break down racial barriers MTV#Breaking the color barrier when first shown on MTV, putting the relatively new channel on the map, changing its focus from rock rock music to pop music and R&B, and therefore shaping it to what it is today. Jackson remained a staple on MTV through the '90s. Brazilian journalist Sergio Martins, in his article about the artist and his death in Veja Veja (magazine) magazine, wrote that after Jackson's work being a versatile dancer became a must for subsequent male stars of pop music. Michael Jackson, along with his musical style and videos, have gone onto become pop culture phenomenons.
Michael Jackson was inducted onto the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1984. Throughout his career he received numerous honors and awards, including the World Music Awards' Best-Selling Pop Male Artist of the Millennium, the American Music Award's Artist of the Century Award and the Bambi Bambi (prize) Pop Artist of the Millennium Award. He was a double-inductee of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame List_of_Rock_and_Roll_Hall_of_Fame_inductees#Performers , once as a member of The Jackson 5 in 1997 and later as a solo artist in 2001. Jackson was also an inductee of the Songwriters Hall of Fame Inductees of the Songwriters Hall of Fame#J in 2002. 15 Grammy Awards (including the "Living Legend Award" and the "Lifetime Achievement Award"), 26 American Music Awards (24 only as a solo artist, including one for "artist of the century")—more than any artist—, 13 number one singles in the US List of artists who reached number one on the Hot 100 (U.S.)#J in his solo career—more than any other male artist in the Hot 100 era—and estimated sales of up to 750 million records worldwide, making him the world's best selling male solo pop artist List of best-selling music artists .
in June 1988
He was characterized as "an unstoppable juggernaut, possessed of all the tools to dominate the charts seemingly at will: an instantly identifiable voice, eye-popping dance moves, stunning musical versatility and loads of sheer star power". In late 2007, Jackson said the following of his work and future influence, "Music has been my outlet, my gift to all of the lovers in this world. Through it, my music, I know I will live forever."
His total lifetime earnings from royalties on his solo recordings and music videos, revenue from concerts and endorsements have been estimated at $500 million; some analysts have speculated that his music catalog holdings could be worth billions of dollars. This speculation however is contradicted by financial documents obtained by the Associated Press, which showed that as of March 31, 2007, Jackson's 50 percent stake in the Sony/ATV Music Publishing catalog (his most prized asset) was worth $390.6 million and Michael Jackson’s net worth was $236 million. As one of the world's most famous men, Jackson's highly publicized personal life, coupled with his successful career Records and achievements by Michael Jackson , made him a part of po***r culture for the last four decades.
Shortly after his death on June 25, 2009, MTV briefly returned to its original music video format to celebrate and pay tribute to his work. The channel aired many hours of Jackson's music videos, accompanied by live news specials featuring reactions from MTV personalities and other celebrities. The temporary shift in MTV's programming culminated the following week with the channel's live coverage of Jackson's memorial service. At the memorial service on July 7, 2009, founder of Motown Records Berry Gordy proclaimed Jackson as "the greatest entertainer that ever lived."
On December 29, 2009 the American Film Institute recognized Jackson's passing as a "moment of significance" saying, "Michael Jackson's sudden death in June at age 50 was notable for the worldwide outpouring of grief and the unprecedented global eulogy of his posthumous concert rehearsal movie 'This is It'.* Got to Be There (1972)
* Ben Ben (album) (1972)
* Music & Me (1973)
* Forever, Michael (1975)
* Off the Wall Off the Wall (album) (1979)
* Thriller Thriller (album) (1982)
* Bad Bad (album) (1987)
* Dangerous Dangerous (album) (1991)
* HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I (1995)
* Invincible Invincible (Michael Jackson album) (2001)* Bad World Tour (1987–89)
* Dangerous World Tour (1992–93)
* HIStory World Tour (1996–97)
* This Is It This Is It (Michael Jackson concerts) (2009–10)
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